Tuesday, May 31, 2016

The Outer Isles Mail

Picture credit Twentymanna
A trawl of Flickr after old pictures of interest the other day brought a rich reward with the photo above of MacBrayne's MV Lochmor (I) approaching Tarbert, Harris in September 1963.

Today, Tarbert is served by a car ferry service direct from Uig on Skye which started in 1964. But prior to that year, it was a port of call on a service called "The Outer Isles Mail", a leisurely circuit of Skye departing from the railheads of Mallaig and Kyle of Lochalsh and calling at the Small Isles and the Uists as well as Harris.

MacBrayne's began mail services to Harris in 1888 with a steamer based at Portree (where a connection could be had to the railhead at Stromeferry (Kyle from 1897 and, from 1901, Mallaig as well) via the Portree Mail steamer). The Outer Isles steamer sailed from Portree three times a week at 06.00 for Tarbert, Rodel, Lochmaddy and Dunvegan where it arrived at 16.20. On its return voyage the following day, the steamer called at Stein and Uig before sailing to Lochmaddy then retracing its steps back via Rodel and Tarbert to Portree where it arrived at 18.45.

SS Lochiel (I) at West Tarbert (Argyll) - a scan from Duckworth & Langmuir's "West Highland Steamers" credited to the Rev. Wm. C Galbraith's collection

The first vessel on this service when it began in 1888 was the tiny Handa which was very soon replaced by the only slightly larger Staffa. She in turn was superseded in 1891 by the Lochiel (I) (pictured above) which served on the route for 16 years. From 1907, the regular steamer on the islands run from Portree was the Lapwing (II) (pictured below). In 1917, the Lapwing was succeeded by the very similar looking Plover (III) which served until replaced by the brand new Lochmor in 1930.

SS Lapwing (II) at Rodel

The complement to the Portree-Dunvegan mail service was one which began in 1889 departing three days a week from Oban at 06.00 for Tobermory, Castlebay, Lochboisdale, Lochmaddy and Dunvegan where the steamer arrived at 23.00. It then immediately returned to Oban through the night via Pooltiel, Bracadale, Canna, Rum and Tobermory. A second steamer left Oban on the other three days of the week and performed this circuit in reverse.

Mail routes to the Western Isles from Oban (yellow) and Portree (red) 1888-1920

The mail routes described above were recast in 1920. The route from Oban (by 1920, operated by a single steamer - the Cygnet (II), a near sister of the Lapwing and the Plover - sailing only three times a week) now took in Coll & Tiree but terminated at Lochboisdale: this was called "The Inner Isles Mail". The route from Portree was relocated to Kyle and Mallaig and now took in Lochboisdale and the Small Isles but omitted Portree and the ports on the west coast of Skye: this was called "The Outer Isles Mail."

The Outer Isles Mail (red) from 1920 to 1964

The summer timetable (the winter was very similar) for the Outer Isles Mail in 1963, the last full year of its operation, is reproduced below:-

As can be seen, the Lochmor made three circuits of Skye from Kyle of Lochalsh a week, one "clockwise" and the other two "anti-clockwise" and each taking approximately 30 hours. On Thursday afternoons in summer, the Lochmor fitted in a cruise from Mallaig to Loch Scavaig on Skye (for Loch Coruisk) and Sunday was spent tied up at Kyle.

The following photos (all clickable to enlarge) show points along the route of the Outer Isles Mail going anti-clockwise round Skye from Kyle. We start with a picture of Lochmor at her usual berth there: in the foreground is the car ferry across to Skye.

Kyle of Lochalsh - postcard view from the late 50s/early 60s
A closer view of the Lochmor at Kyle of Lochalsh - photocredit W M Macdonald

On an "anti-clockwise" sailing, the Lochmor sailed north and her first call was at the island of Scalpay off the coast of Harris where she arrived five hours after leaving Kyle. Until 1964, the Outer Isles Mail was the people of Scalpay's main connection with the mainland. Pictures of the Lochmor at Scalpay are scarce and the following four are the only ones I've ever seen (but see also the film referred to further on):-

Lochmor approaching the pier at Scalpay - copyright Francis Frith
The Lochmor alongside at Scalpay - Harris in the background
View of Scalpay Pier from the Lochmor
The Lochmor at Scalpay Pier

(I can't remember where I got the last three pictures from so if anybody recognises them as theirs, do let me know and I will give due accreditation or remove them if preferred.)

Incidentally, the steamer pier pictured above no longer exists but there's a Marine Harvest fish farm depot on the site - see here and here.

The next call after Scalpay was Tarbert, the "capital" of Harris. Note that, although the timetable states the Outer Isles Mail conveyed motor vehicles, there was only space for two or three on the Lochmor's deck and these had to be craned on and off as seen at Tarbert in the early 1930s below:-

Picture credit Sandy Stevenson
Picture credit Simplon Postcards
Lochmor at Tarbert, Harris

From Tarbert, the Lochmor proceeded to Lochmaddy on North Uist via calls at Stockinish and Rodel. The two latter were ferry calls meaning the steamer didn't berth at a pier but stood off while a launch came out from the shore to meet it. The call at Stockinish was discontinued after 1954 - I'm guessing that was due to completion of the "Golden Road" (allegedly so-called because it was thought to have been such an expensive undertaking) along the south east coast of Harris allowing passengers more conveniently to join the steamer at Tarbert or Rodel.

The Lochmor at Lochmaddy

The next call after Lochmaddy (above) was Lochboisdale on South Uist. (As I've blogged about before - here - the steamer didn't stop at Peter's Port, the pier for Benbecula.) At Lochboisdale, the Outer Isles Mail steamer met her opposite number on the Inner Isles Mail, the Lochmor's sister ship, the Lochearn. From 1955, the Lochearn was replaced by the Claymore (II)

The Lochmor (left) and Lochearn (right) alongside at Lochboisdale in blustery weather
Look carefully and you can see both mail steamers are alongside at Lochboisdale - a photo clearly taken on the same day as the previous one.
In this picture at Lochboisdale, the Lochmor is alongside the Lochearn's successor on the Inner Isles Mail, the Claymore introduced in 1955

Next after Lochboisdale on anti-clockwise sailings of the Outer Isles Mail were the Small Isles - Canna, Rum and Eigg (no call at Muck in these days: passengers from that island had to travel on the Muck estate's boat to catch the steamer at Eigg). I've never seen a picture of the Lochmor at Canna (the only one of the Small Isles with a pier she could get alongside) or Rum (ferry call) but here are two nice ones of her at Eigg (also a ferry call) from the excellent visitsmallisles.com website

The Lochmor off Eigg - Hector MacLean collection

Ferryman's eye view of the Lochmor at Eigg in 1936 - Ann Raith Collection

Also from the Ann Raith collection is another nice picture on board the Lochmor:-

From Eigg, the next call was Mallaig and there follow a few pictures of the Lochmor there:-

The Lochmor alongside at Mallaig - picture credit Buckielugger

The Lochmor leaving Mallaig - picture credit Clydeboy63 via Ships Nostalgia
The other vessel at the pier is the paddle steamer Fusilier which operated the Portree Mail service 1931-34

In that last picture, the Lochmor wasn't centre stage but it was worth reproducing for the message on the back: no date but it's a George VI (1936-52) and the postmark, at Isle of Eigg, could be August 1945:-

Leaving Mallaig, once a week the Lochmor called at Armadale on Skye - prior to 1964, there was no regular Mallaig-Armadale service as there is today and it was just an occasional port of call by passing steamers on their way elsewhere. Here's the Lochmor off Armadale Pier:-

The Lochmor at Armadale - photo credit W. M. Macdonald

Lastly, but only once a week on her "clockwise" round Skye sailing, the Lochmor made a ferry call off Glenelg. I don't have a picture of that - if anyone does, do let me know.

The Lochmor sailed from Kyle on the Outer Isles Mail for the last time on Monday 13 April 1964. Two days later the route was discontinued upon the inauguration of the new car ferry service from Uig to Tarbert and Lochmaddy carried by the new car ferry MV Hebrides. In compensation for the loss of calls by the Outer Isles Mail, Scalpay received first a service by a local fishing boat to connect with the ferry at Tarbert and then, the following year, its own car ferry across the Kyle Scalpay to Harris. This was replaced by a bridge in 1997.

The Small Isles received their own dedicated schedule with four sailings a week from Mallaig known as "The Inshore Mail". For a few weeks this was run by the Lochmor until the Portree Mail steamer MV Loch Arkaig took over in early June 1964. The Lochmor then went south to assist her sister and former incumbent of the Inner Isles Mail, the Lochearn, carrying cars between Oban, Craignure (Mull) and Lochaline. Upon the arrival of the last of MacBrayne's three new car ferries, the MV Columba, to take up that service on 30 July 1964, the Lochmor and Lochearn were finally redundant. They were sold in August to Greek owners in Piraeus and sailed from Ardrossan for the Aegean named respectively Amimoni and Naias. I have no information about the Amimoni ex-Lochmor's subsequent career in Greece and the Clydesite website reports various dates for her scrapping 1969, 1976 and 1984.

The Lochmor at Lochaline in July 1964 after discontinuation of the Outer Isles Mail filling in pending arrival of the car ferry Columba - photo credit Ken Connell 

Finally, a superb 14 minute film from the National Libraries of Scotland Moving Image Archive following the Lochmor round the Outer Isles Mail on a clockwise trip from Kyle. I don't think I can embed the film here but here is the link to it.

The film really conveys what an arduous voyage the Outer Isles Mail must have been at times - note the sea spray lashing that Morris Traveller on the deck! The film seems to have been made in 1964 just before the Outer Isles Mail ended - perhaps it was to commemorate an institution about to pass into history. The pier at Tarbert appears already to have been rebuilt in anticipation of the new car ferry about to arrive (note that, in the picture right at the top of this post, the pier works are still under way).  The initial text about the Lochmor having served the route for 39 years beginning in 1934 is wrong, by the way: she started in 1930.

The following is a guide to the places seen in the film in minutes and seconds into it:-

00.30 - by the shore of Loch Cluanie on the road (A87) to Kyle of Lochalsh
02.45 - Kylerhea on Skye
03.11-03.30 - the lighthouse at Sandaig at north side of the mouth of Loch Hourn
04.10 - Sound of Sleat
04.20 - the north side of the mouth of Loch Nevis
04.39-05.32 - Mallaig
05.32-06.08 - arrival at Mallaig of the Stornoway mail steamer, MV Loch Seaforth (I think the Lochmor has had to temporarily vacate the berth to allow the Loch Seaforth in and is seen at 06.10 coming back in after the LS has left.)  
06.37-06.55 & 07.14-07.36 - Eigg
07.37-08.30 - Rum
08.44 - this bit at night might be coming alongside the Inner Isles Mail steamer, MV Claymore, at Lochboisdale
09.13 - sailing up the coast of Benbecula (South Uist in distance) between Lochboisdale and Lochmaddy
09.50 - East Loch Tarbert, Harris
09.55-11.03 - Tarbert (Note at 10.03 how the work to improve the pier for the car ferry to succeed the Lochmor has been completed.)
11.04-11.35 - Scalpay
11.37-12.22 - Kyle Scalpay
12.34 - Rhubha Hunish, north end of Skye
12.45-13.00 - Trotternish, Skye
13.15 - the Red Cuillins, Skye
13.41 - Eilean Ban Lighthouse, Kyle of Lochalsh (where the Skye Bridge is now).

Sleeping berth on the Lochmor

Almost forgot to mention prices. In 1963, the round trip fare from Kyle was £2:10s:7d (£2.53) and a two berth deluxe cabin was £1:7s:6d (£1.35). That total of £3.88 for the fare and cabin is about £110 in today's money. (Compare with £180 for the fare and a Premium Outer 2 Berth Cabin today on the 12 hour overnight sailing from Aberdeen to Lerwick by Northlink.) I don't think I would have bothered with a cabin on the Outer Isles Mail, though - I'd have stayed up all night on deck watching the comings and goings!

Sunday, May 1, 2016

Desolation Road?

The postcard above, looking south east along the A832 between Dundonnell and Braemore Junction in Wester Ross, caught my eye for depicting the single track road and narrow bridge which existed before this stretch of road was widened to double track in the early 1960s.

Then I noticed the caption on the card: "Desolation Road". It seems an apt enough description for such a remote spot but in fact it's a mistake: the actual name of this stretch is "The Destitution Road".

I have a mental picture of the publisher of the postcard saying to himself: "It says here Destitution Road but surely that can't be right - it must be Desolation." But anyway, the reason why the road is so-called is that it was built around 1850 with public money to provide employment for locals who had been left destitute by the Potato Famine in the 1840s. The publishers of the postcard below got it right:-

Looking back north from a point just past where the road disappears over the horizon in the first postcard

Another stretch of the A832 - that along Loch Maree between Kinlochewe and Slattadale - was built at the same time in similar circumstances. There are probably other "destitution roads" in the north and west of Scotland but, so far as I know, the one between Dundonnell and Braemore is the only one locally so called - if anyone knows differently, do leave a comment.

The original road built along Loch Maree around 1850 was realigned in the late 60s/early 70s and these lovely old retaining walls are now abandoned and crumbling into the loch
The three red stars mark the locations of the photographs above.

As I was annotating that map, I remembered I'd written a post about five years ago about the Fain Inn which used to lie on the Destitution Road almost exactly half way between the first two photographs above. That post also explained why the road was so-called and the photo at the end of it - which is repeated below - shows the builder's plaque dated 1963 on the bridge built to replace the one in the photo at the top of this post when this stretch of the A832 was widened to double track. More about nearby Dundonnell here as well. Sorry for the repetition between posts!


Sunday, November 15, 2015

Tobermory: the Mountaineer, the Lochdunvegan and Mishnish Pier

Two interesting photos of Tobermory in the 1930s I came across on Flickr recently:-

From an album found in a house clearance shop in Haywards Heath, Sussex, they were taken by an unknown couple who toured Scotland, Cumbria and Yorkshire by car in 1935: you can see the complete album here.

The arrangement of the davits at the bow of the ship the photographer was on confirms her to have been MacBrayne's paddle steamer Mountaineer (III) pictured below (all pictures clickable to enlarge).

Picture credit - Harley Crossley via Shipsnostalgia.com

The last paddle steamer to have been ordered by MacBrayne's (though not the last in their service: that was the Islay steamer Pioneer (II) which continued until 1944), the Mountaineer was built on the Clyde in 1910. Though never closely associated with any particular route, she did spend much of her career at Oban deputising for the regular steamers to destinations such as Fort William and Tobermory. In the photos, then, she would likely have been standing in for the MV Lochinvar on the daily Sound of Mull mail service which was the island's principal connection with the mainland before car ferries were introduced in 1964. The Mountaineer was scrapped in 1928.

In the second photo, taken as the Mountaineer paddles astern back from the pier, two things caught my attention. First, the ship at the pier - had the Mountaineer been lying alongside her with her passengers having to clamber over her to get to the pier? Anyway, she is the SS Lochdunvegan, built in 1891 but acquired by MacBrayne's in 1929.  The picture of her below at Kyle of Lochalsh is taken from the Skye & Lochalsh Archive Centre's highly recommended Facebook page

The Lochdunvegan was one of MacBrayne's cargo steamers. Before freight for the islands started to go on lorries conveyed by ro-ro vehicle ferries in the early 1970s, MacBrayne's had two parallel fleets - the mail steamers for carriage of passengers plus the mail and light or perishable goods (bananas) daily from railheads like Oban, Mallaig and Kyle and the cargo steamers for the carriage of heavier goods (fence posts) weekly from Glasgow.

According to the West Highland steamer buff's bible Duckworth & Langmuir, the Lochdunvegan was regularly on a cargo run from Glasgow to Stornoway with calls only at Tobermory and Portree until she was scrapped in 1948. (MacBrayne's subsequently acquired another cargo ship called Lochdunvegan and she too was a regular caller at Tobermory 1951-73: picture here)

The other thing I noticed about the second photo was the cranes indicating building work going on at the pier. This was when the original stone quay of what was known as Mishnish Pier, built 1862 and so called because it was built by Frederick Caldwell, the owner of the surrounding Mishnish Estate (see the statutory notices here and here), was extended out and lengthwise with a steel frame topped with a timber deck. The previous year, 1934, MacBrayne's had bought the pier from Mishnish Estate (since the turn of the century owned by the Sandeman family) with a view to investing in it and, as well as extending it, built the distinctive white art deco ticket office and waiting room. You can see the previous pier building a bit more clearly in the picture below:-

Cargo steamer SS Lochbroom, 1933 - picture credit Vital Spark via Shipsnostalgia.com
The next picture shows the steel extension to the stone quay which was being built in the second of the two pictures at the top of this post. The ships visible are, left to right, SS LochgarryMV Lochinvar and the Mountaineer and this dates the photo to between January 1937 (MacBrayne's acquisition of the Lochgarry) and September 1938 (disposal of the Mountaineer).

Picture credit Strath-101 via Shipsnostalgia.com
And in the next one, taken in 1962, you can see the lengthwise extension as well as the art deco pier building built in 1935:-

Picture credit Douglas Campbell
Not everybody was happy with the new pier buildings back in the 1930s, though. A diary entry in the "Women's Topics - Out and About in Scottish Society" section of the Glasgow Herald by Kate Candour in October 1936 noted sniffily:-

Across the Sound of Mull [from Glenborrodale Castle, the wife of whose English owner, Lord Trent, it had been noted, regularly played the organ in Ardnamurchan parish church] another English magnate seems to be adopting Tobermory; but, while appreciating his good intentions, I am inclined to side with the natives, who have no great desire to see their picturesque little town hurriedly brought into line with Southern resorts. Rumour has it that this Liverpool shipowner may be acquiring more territory in the neighbourhood, and I can only express the purely personal hope that he will not be led into repeating the solecism which is the new Tobermory pier - rebuilt, I understand, to his instructions. This thing of white concrete, scarlet woodwork - in a style the very essence of modernism - against the old fashioned little port and background of rolling moorland is, to my mind, somewhat incongruous. But, then, maybe I am prejudiced and showing base ingratitude for the comfortable new waiting rooms, which are a great improvement on the old ramshackle building.  

I think Ms Candour is wrong in a number of respects there, though. The "Liverpool shipowner" is likely a reference to Bryce Allan, the owner of the Aros Estate on the south side of Tobermory. His great-grandfather (a Scot) had founded the Allan shipping line noted for trading from Glasgow to Canada. His grandfather, another Bryce, had taken charge of the firm's Liverpool operations and bought Aros Estate in 1873. But another two generations removed, I'm not sure if it would still have been accurate to describe Bryce (II) Allan as a "Liverpool shipowner" or, indeed, as English. And anyway, by the 1930s, he was selling off parts of Aros rather than buying new bits. Finally, MacBrayne's built a number of art deco buildings in the mid 1930s including at Port Ellen and Fort William (others?) although I think I'm right in saying that Tobermory is the only one which survives. So the notion that MacBrayne's were pandering to the whim of a local landowner on Mull seems unlikely.

Mid 1950s - picture credit Andy Carter
In 1964, car and passenger traffic for Mull (and the mail) became centred on Craignure Pier with the introduction that year of car ferries. And after the withdrawal in 1974 of the steamer King George V from the summer "Sacred Isle Cruise" from Oban round Mull to Iona and Staffa, then the cessation of separate cargo services in 1976, the only big ship to stop regularly at Tobermory was the Coll & Tiree ferry from Oban which called three times a week.

Admiralty Chart Mull of Kintyre to Ardnamurchan - National Libraries of Scotland
But the Tobermory call was not a life-line service and the winter incumbent of the Coll & Tiree run in the late 1970s, MV Iona, was not able to get alongside the pier and had to lie off in the bay and be tendered to by a launch. Although the summer ferry, the Columba, was able to berth, the condition of the 1930s extensions to Mishnish Pier was deteriorating and Calmac's preferred (though unspoken) option was to demolish them and leave just the original stone quay which would only be suitable for the smallest vessels.

The inevitable war of words ensued (see here). In 1980, Strathclyde Regional Council refused to take responsibility for the pier but matters didn't come to a head until May 1983 when Calmac abruptly closed it to vessels over 70' which prevented even the Columba getting alongside in summer. Local demonstrations involved stunts such as floating mock mines in the bay, passengers diving off the Columba as she approached to emphasise the desirability of a pier and banners with slogans such as "Calmac murders piers of the realm" (see here and here). Eventually, after first agreeing in September to pay for demolition of the 1930s extensions which rather missed the point (here), the Government agreed in February 1984 to refurbish the pier comprehensively to make it fit for calls by the Coll & Tiree car ferries in winter and summer. The work was completed in 1985 and its layout is best illustrated by aerial photography:-

But despite the revamped pier, the continued run-down of services to Mishnish Pier continued: cars stopped being loaded at Tobermory in 1992 and all calls by the Coll & Tiree ferry ceased in 1998 when the year round incumbent on the route since 1989, MV Lord of the Isles, was replaced by a larger vessel, the Clansman, which was too big to berth at Tobermory. The picture below I took of the Lord of the Isles arriving Mishnish Pier in, I think, early 1998 because - continuing the town's tradition of imaginative protest - I remember seeing in a shop window a large cake in the shape of a Calmac ferry baked by way of protest at the imminent cessation of calls by the Coll & Tiree steamer with the advent of the new Clansman:-

Mishnish Pier remains the property of Caledonian Maritime Assets Ltd (as Calmac became known once it had become merely the ship and pier owning company after the ship operating had been spun out as Calmac Ferries Ltd in 2006 - see here for details of that), its primary function for them now being the overnight berth for the Mingary (Ardnamurchan) ferry which operates from a slipway just to the east of the pier.

The Raasay is the winter ferry: a larger drive through one operates in summer. The lifeboat has its own pier just to the east of Mishnish Pier - photo credit Gordon Stirling